The Mysterious Origins of the Nucleus

2 131 Shikime 216 mijë

This episode is brought to you by the Music for Scientists album! Stream the album on major music services here: streamlink.to/music-for-scientists. Check out “The Idea” music video here: alfirst.info/load/qIqwhHCZl6yelJc/video.

The cell nucleus is crucial to multicellular life, so you think science would have a good idea how it evolved. The truth is, we don't, but Scientists do have some theories, including invading giant viruses!
Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Sources:
www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/prokaryote
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9841/#:~:text=The%20eukaryotes%20developed%20at%20least,billion%20years%20of%20prokaryotic%20evolution.
www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/beyond-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-planctomycetes-and-cell-14158971/
bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.3732/ajb.1500196#:~:text=Nuclear%20endosymbiotic%20theories%20hold%20that,in%20a%20single%20prokaryotic%20lineage.&text=vesicles%20within%20the%20original%20cell%20body
study.com/academy/answer/compare-and-contrast-the-theories-of-endosymbiosis-and-invagination-and-the-supporting-evidence-for-each.html
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571569/
royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.2014.0330
www.nature.com/articles/nature21113
www.biomedcentral.com/about/press-centre/science-press-releases/28-oct-2014
bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-014-0076-2
bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-014-0076-2
www.popsci.com/best-neuroscience-images-2017/
www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1916-6
advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/35/eabb7258
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168170220310753
www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro.2016.197
www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/please-welcome-megavirus-the-worlds-most-ginormous-virus
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563228/
www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.571831/full#B24
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329290/
www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.571831/full#B24
science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6321/194
www.quantamagazine.org/did-viruses-create-the-nucleus-the-answer-may-be-near-20201125
www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.571831/full#B24
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168170220310753
www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2020/02/oh-look-ton-giant-viruses-inside-your-mouth/606763/
Image Sources:
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HeLa_cells_stained_with_Hoechst_33258.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=66632854
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microscopy_characterization_and_lipid_composition_of_MK-D1.webp
www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1916-6
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_microscopic_image_of_a_mimivirus_-_journal.ppat.1000087.g007_crop.png
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bovine_Pulmonary_Artery_Endothelial_Cells_Fluorescent_Image_2.jpg

Komente

  1. SciShow
    SciShow
    24 ditë më parë

    This episode is brought to you by the Music for Scientists album! Stream the album on major music services here: streamlink.to/music-for-scientists. Check out “The Idea” music video here: alfirst.info/load/qIqwhHCZl6yelJc/video.

    1. P R
      P R
      20 ditë më parë

      No mystery at all. God made us. Read Genesis 1

    2. Julia Radomski
      Julia Radomski
      21 ditë më parë

      I just

    3. StYxXx
      StYxXx
      22 ditë më parë

      They still advertise their album without showing as even a second of the music - bust some random stock footage instead. Yeah.... I don't even know what genre this music might be. I'mt not sure if that's how you convince scientists :D

    4. Dibald Gyfm
      Dibald Gyfm
      22 ditë më parë

      @SciShow: Please do not cut out all the breathing pauses! It makes it unbearable to listen.

    5. BombaiBeast
      BombaiBeast
      24 ditë më parë

      what if a giant virus got pushed inside a archeion by some forceful external factor, like pressure?

  2. P S
    P S
    Ditë më parë

    Microbiology is SO FASCINATING! I forget why I hated it in school sometimes, but then I see a video and my trypophobia punches me in the brain and I'm like, "oooooooh yeaaaaah.... I'll just scroll to the comments and listen quietly."

  3. Zoey Campbell
    Zoey Campbell
    2 ditë më parë

    Thx I have been learning about this

  4. TacComControl
    TacComControl
    2 ditë më parë

    "... Vagina, which essentially means Cavity" I should go to the dentist someday soon. Check and see if there are any vaginas in my teeth.

  5. Davis
    Davis
    4 ditë më parë

    You know just saying that your complicated self was made by a loving God just seems so simple.

  6. Reginald Finley
    Reginald Finley
    4 ditë më parë

    I swear I can't get any work done with these amazing SciShow videos. lol. Luckily, I'm a biology professor so the content is in line with my interests. :-) Thanks SciShow!

  7. Username
    Username
    5 ditë më parë

    If that theory about giant viruses is true, then we’re all just really big multicellular viruses.

  8. whesley hynes
    whesley hynes
    5 ditë më parë

    Biology is based on and depends on torturing animals. It cant advance without injecting millions of animals with disease. And killing them and mutilating their dead bodies. The reason we know anything about the body is cause in the past scientists vivisected, dissected animals alive took them apart like a car while alive to study their bodies. Thats what biology is: torturing animals. The biologists that dont torture still support it and mutilate lots of dead animals.

  9. TRDPaul
    TRDPaul
    5 ditë më parë

    Humans and most other life just exists for the benefit of our virus overlords

  10. Romuland Meier
    Romuland Meier
    8 ditë më parë

    The nucleus is a security measurement to help ptotecting the DNA from viruses. Also you all should be used to the idea of living with viruses - we mammals can only give birth because of some ancient virus RNA preventing our mothers immune system to kill us.

  11. B
    B
    9 ditë më parë

    For the algorithm.

  12. trint k
    trint k
    9 ditë më parë

    Wtf is his hair...

  13. John Smith
    John Smith
    10 ditë më parë

    Love your content but i found the album music for scientists inaudible... make my ears hurt. I always try to encourage artists but i just dont see how this music can be enjoyed.. i feel bad for saying so but.. is it just me?

  14. Garrett Meyer
    Garrett Meyer
    12 ditë më parë

    I watch all your stuff and honestly thanking your music for scientists ad. I much enjoy it

  15. G G
    G G
    12 ditë më parë

    "as diverse as the bottom of the ocean or the inside of your mouth". idk basically the same in my case

  16. Blalack77
    Blalack77
    13 ditë më parë

    It would be cool if we could develop a way to create some of these early organisms/cells/etc and speed up their evolution - or at least perfectly accurately simulate it - and see how things evolve in a matter of days instead of millennia. I guess that's something that would be more likely in a computer simulation - unless everything contained in their lifespans could be dramatically accelerated somehow. Kind of like the Spore video game - but much more advanced/complex/realistic. As a side note, I've also always liked the idea on South Park with the "Sea People" (not the Bronze Age invaders) - but just put little people in an aquarium and watch them develop lol.

  17. MaverickBlue
    MaverickBlue
    14 ditë më parë

    Viruses are always seeking out equilibrium. If they kill off all the hosts, they go extinct. Evolution favours viruses that coexist with the hosts.

  18. Bea Chapman
    Bea Chapman
    15 ditë më parë

    So many questions to answer

  19. A. N.
    A. N.
    15 ditë më parë

    !

  20. Alex Strauss
    Alex Strauss
    15 ditë më parë

    One theory after the other, one hypothesis after another... and then, of course, there’s the idea of a “Creator.”

  21. Pablo
    Pablo
    16 ditë më parë

    The reason scientists haven't found giant viruses that make factories in archaea is because they are all inside our cells.. duh! :p great video btw :)

  22. Meÿli Vaisyl
    Meÿli Vaisyl
    16 ditë më parë

    I feel like now when we mention 2020, we need to start saying which month it happened. Like when they say a research was published in 2020, I need the month to have more context 🤔 January 2020 and April 2020 are NOT the same year.

  23. Brad Hilton
    Brad Hilton
    16 ditë më parë

    That’s some serious Science my dude !

  24. Brad Hilton
    Brad Hilton
    16 ditë më parë

    Isn’t that interesting the “ Nu-Science” , the fine art of crispr -STEMCELL Bioengineering.

  25. Jay
    Jay
    17 ditë më parë

    So thaaat's why my breath smells when I have cavities...

  26. Will ofone
    Will ofone
    17 ditë më parë

    After watching all these scishow clips I have come to a conclusion. It would be far easier to say what does not need more research than to say it needs more research. In a way human hunger for information is promising, and then another the endless task is quite daunting.

  27. Gordon Cameron
    Gordon Cameron
    18 ditë më parë

    God is a Virus !!!!

  28. Archives of Creation
    Archives of Creation
    18 ditë më parë

    Great imagination and your really working hard to make molecules to man evolution sound possible. Here's a better idea, God created the nucleus at the beginning just like he told us.

  29. Rainbow Sprinkles
    Rainbow Sprinkles
    18 ditë më parë

    Prokaryote: How can I develop a nucleus like you have? Eukaryote: Use your invagination! It does make sense that if our ancestors had protein-assembling machinery both inside and outside the nucleus, one or the other set would atrophy and disappear as the other becomes dominant. Maybe which of the two won out could have come down to mRNA being the least energy-intensive thing to transport across the nuclear membrane, as opposed to DNA ior assembled proteins? The macrovirus hypothesis is presented in this video as an alternative to the inside-out hypothesis, but also suggests a very modest extension of the inside-out hypothesis to explain the same thing. It might plausibly be that minimising activity which goes on inside the nucleus helps to optimise its function as a safe nonvolatile storage area. On another hand, perhaps it could be that a macrovirus got blebbed up at some point along with the ancestors of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and such. If our whole Eukaryote lineage might include not only endosymbiosis between multiple prokaryotes, but also virus particles, personally we find that notion rather warm and fuzzy rather than disturbing: an extension of the endosymbiote hypothesis, wherein some of our ancestors tried to eat other ancestors of ours, but instead they survived together and their descendants are different parts of our cells today. Venturing beyond modest speculation and into the very wild, so take with a big grain of salt, perhaps today's macroviruses might instead be descendants of Eukaryote nuclei: occasionally ribosomes get into the nucleus, and over a lot of die rolls, one led to a replicating nucleus. Similar throwbacks on a much larger size scale are occasionally successful, including "immortal lines" of animal cells behaving like protists, so a naturally-ocurring rogue nucleus behaving like a virus is at the very least plausible enough for reasonably hard sci fi.

  30. Michael Hahn
    Michael Hahn
    18 ditë më parë

    So we are looking for a giant virus that inserts itself into the hosts dna and creates a viral factory. Seems easy enough

  31. MooFit CJ
    MooFit CJ
    18 ditë më parë

    Combine all the theories. Big virus goes into archea, archea ate bacteria via blebs

  32. Patrick Sarama
    Patrick Sarama
    18 ditë më parë

    *Where the hell is Hank? I want my Hank back*

  33. shaind
    shaind
    19 ditë më parë

    1:25 This is utterly incorrect. This depiction does not explain the fact that nuclear membrane is double layered. In reality, the cell membrane folded inwards to wrap around the DNA to make double layer, not single layer which DNA mysteriously passes through as depicted in the video.

  34. Canadian WaffenWaffle
    Canadian WaffenWaffle
    19 ditë më parë

    imagine being such a close friend that you evolved into essentially a organ into your friend

  35. Law 86
    Law 86
    19 ditë më parë

    Ah I see. This is why I failed high school and college biology. Nobody knows what the heck is going on!!!!

  36. Seth Johnson
    Seth Johnson
    19 ditë më parë

    Ha! He said invagination. I'm sorry.... I love these videos thank you!

  37. Jonathan Seggie
    Jonathan Seggie
    19 ditë më parë

    The inside out hypothesis sounds like a Rick and Morty episode 😂

  38. tom kearns
    tom kearns
    19 ditë më parë

    With each episode the volume gose up a click

  39. I like beer
    I like beer
    19 ditë më parë

    He said vagina!

  40. LUKE WUNDERLI
    LUKE WUNDERLI
    19 ditë më parë

    Giant viruses would still leave room for endosymbiosis

  41. Jimmy Saint
    Jimmy Saint
    19 ditë më parë

    Wonder how many moms are gonna freak out when they find "invagination" in the search bar lmfao "but MOM, I was just doing RESEARCH!"

  42. Aeronor2001
    Aeronor2001
    19 ditë më parë

    I like the giant virus theory because it makes sense to me how that arrangement could be replicated in that cell's descendants. The invagination and blebs ideas don't feel like they have an easy explanation of how their cellular arrangements could be genetically inheritable. For example, if an archaea replicates inside of its enclosed bleb sphere, how does that result in two complete cells with their own mitochondria and one "nucleus," rather than two "nuclei" surrounded by mitochondria sharing a single cell?

  43. fern Haloo
    fern Haloo
    20 ditë më parë

    What about plant cells?

  44. Gabe Rocca
    Gabe Rocca
    20 ditë më parë

    Envagination would give a cell more surface area to interact with its environment wouldn't it?

  45. KAMEH
    KAMEH
    20 ditë më parë

    WRONG!!! Cells are like fusion reactors. Only the membrane and the nucleus are supposed to make up the cell. Later DNA was developed and kept the encoding of the host. DNA also works as an antenna.

  46. Douglas Furtek
    Douglas Furtek
    20 ditë më parë

    I still like Lynn Margulis' endosymbiotic theory for the origin of chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei. It appears to me, though, that the nucleus originated as an archaean endoparasite. After being gobbled up by the host "bug" the incipient nucleus took command of the host. The host shed its DNA while retaining its protein-making machinery, and the boss parasite (nucleus) shed its protein-making machinery while retaining its DNA.

  47. FauxVier
    FauxVier
    20 ditë më parë

    Crazy

  48. Crash
    Crash
    20 ditë më parë

    I had to rewind to make sure I’d heard “Asgard Archaea” correctly

  49. Zachary Collins
    Zachary Collins
    20 ditë më parë

    like yin and yang

  50. Kravchenko Audio
    Kravchenko Audio
    20 ditë më parë

    Kind of lost me on the scientific part when you say somehow... Pretty much credulity at it's best.

  51. Dennis Shows
    Dennis Shows
    20 ditë më parë

    What's going on with the shadows of his hoodie strings?

  52. Wakey Wakey
    Wakey Wakey
    20 ditë më parë

    Who created DNA & nucleic acid? Oh right, everything created itself out of nothing. What a joke. God is the Creator. Satan is the Destroyer. Basic facts.

  53. soulstealer29a
    soulstealer29a
    20 ditë më parë

    I shouldn't have been eating something when he said invagination.

  54. manoela
    manoela
    21 ditë më parë

    how do bacterias produce energy? i remember my biology teacher talling me that the mesossome was responsible for that but there's a discussion against the *existence* of mesossomes??? like, if they don't exist then how tf do bacterias do metabolism??

  55. Herne Webber
    Herne Webber
    21 ditë më parë

    How about, "the viral factory lost genes, becoming the ribosome?"

  56. meneeRubieko
    meneeRubieko
    21 ditë më parë

    Bleb is a good example of the true nature of scientists www.chm.bris.ac.uk/sillymolecules/sillymols3.htm Just children with advanced toys

  57. meneeRubieko
    meneeRubieko
    21 ditë më parë

    Most interesting video all week props

  58. FRANKLIN Z
    FRANKLIN Z
    21 ditë më parë

    Or its the other way around. Giant viruses are astray nuclei trying to find a new cell body.

  59. Hotpies
    Hotpies
    21 ditë më parë

    Viruses were invented by aliens and they started life on earth and now the aliens came back to destroy us with corona

  60. Jeffinetly JefFBi
    Jeffinetly JefFBi
    21 ditë më parë

    There is not a chance on this planet I'd ever be able to keep a strait face doing a video like this.

  61. Levon Guyumjian
    Levon Guyumjian
    21 ditë më parë

    No bacteria involved to creating nucleus, the original nucleus is actually was part of the earth ones in the life time, there is lot more involved how nucleus functions and how it became what it is actually.

  62. Chris Brown
    Chris Brown
    21 ditë më parë

    Science: So a giant virus and and a bacteria enter a bar...

  63. ADHDerailed
    ADHDerailed
    21 ditë më parë

    MY BRAIN: NACHO LIBRE VOICE- "...AND BENEATH THE MAN...WE FIND HIS NUCLEAS..."

  64. Brannon Harris
    Brannon Harris
    21 ditë më parë

    Confirmed we are a virus. Okay. Goodnight

  65. Galacticat
    Galacticat
    21 ditë më parë

    Hearing about Blebs makes me feel like I'm told all about a plumbus.

  66. Henry Seldon
    Henry Seldon
    21 ditë më parë

    Can we take cells without a nucleus today and try to replicate what we think happened to see if we can get it to happen again? It's impossible to know how much of the nucleus has evolved since then so maybe not.

  67. FascLnatLon
    FascLnatLon
    21 ditë më parë

    Energy center..? DONT YOUR MEAN POWER HOUSE

  68. Chris Young
    Chris Young
    21 ditë më parë

    If im remembering correctly, virus can steal host dna. So is it possible that a virus DNA mutated to the point where it could not replicate inside the host, but still infected and built the factory? Would it then be possible to lay dormant until the eukaryote divided, with the eukaryotes DNA ending up inside the virus factory? Perhaps the cell wall of the dividing cell could "get confused" by the random virus factories cell and create a second membrane around the virus factories membrane

  69. Sue-Ann Aubry
    Sue-Ann Aubry
    21 ditë më parë

    "which very serious scientists called... blebs!" gotta love schishows writers

  70. FlawedNotOutlawed
    FlawedNotOutlawed
    21 ditë më parë

    The nucleus is the government of the cell

  71. Salgood Sam
    Salgood Sam
    21 ditë më parë

    Someone in the field must have proposed bacterial infection and symbiosis by now? I've always thought those are the most obvious mechanisms, rather than random cavities, or blebs?

  72. Mackss
    Mackss
    22 ditë më parë

    Excellent!

  73. K OBrien
    K OBrien
    22 ditë më parë

    BLEBS is a real scientific word. We are an interesting species😋

  74. Gabriel G. Cunha
    Gabriel G. Cunha
    22 ditë më parë

    Let's hope the next weird thing will be called #plumbus it will fit nicely next to the blebs

  75. jSkrat Nyarlathotep
    jSkrat Nyarlathotep
    22 ditë më parë

    2:38 it is really illegal to say "mitochondria" without "powerhouse of the cell". I didn't believe it when I heard that XD

  76. Sokphally Hul
    Sokphally Hul
    22 ditë më parë

    Let explain with pictures and slowly please Thank you very much

  77. Ben McReynolds
    Ben McReynolds
    22 ditë më parë

    I love hypothesizing about life and Humanity and microbiology. Organic and inorganic compounds. Micro and Macro, space, galaxies, stars, black holes. Man life is just so fascinating.

  78. Charlie Spurr
    Charlie Spurr
    22 ditë më parë

    Music for scientists? I'm intrigued...

  79. Doug Tibbetts
    Doug Tibbetts
    22 ditë më parë

    Best sci fi program on the tube!!

  80. John Philip Tan
    John Philip Tan
    22 ditë më parë

    The Archaeon swallowing the Bacterium hypothesis reminds me of midi-chlorians

  81. Jerry Forde only
    Jerry Forde only
    22 ditë më parë

    Complicated, not complex....?

  82. Daxxon Jabiru
    Daxxon Jabiru
    22 ditë më parë

    I always wondered how plumbuses were made.

  83. Adam Kilber
    Adam Kilber
    22 ditë më parë

    7:35 this feels like the start of a great science joke

  84. Rookwings Kirk
    Rookwings Kirk
    22 ditë më parë

    The fact that someone named something 'blebs' gives me an unreasonable amount of joy

  85. Mihir Vasave
    Mihir Vasave
    22 ditë më parë

    2:40 *POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL

  86. Nothing\
    Nothing\
    22 ditë më parë

    If I had to guess, I'd think a cell would fold in on itself in the manner explained in invagination to increase surface area as an evolutionary adaptation to cells becoming larger. A larger cell will have less surface area compared to its volume, but if the cell's outer membrane folds in on itself, the cell has a lot more surface area to exchange various chemicals and nutrients with its environment, and better sustain itself. I'd wager this is how vacuoles came to be in cells as well. But I don't know if vacuoles have a double membrane or not. Which would lend credence to this theory.

  87. James Neustaedter
    James Neustaedter
    22 ditë më parë

    So.. that episode of rick and morty is real at a cellular level ...

  88. Brian Brueshaber
    Brian Brueshaber
    22 ditë më parë

    Compartments arent a big deal? Go try to sell a car with NO CUPHOLDERS and tell me compartments arent a big deal!

  89. Todd Bellows
    Todd Bellows
    22 ditë më parë

    A lot of speculation.

  90. nihilsson
    nihilsson
    22 ditë më parë

    the lightning of those hoodie laces make me mad. Great video, though. As always

  91. Giotube
    Giotube
    22 ditë më parë

    Design*

  92. ᠯᡠᠪᡵᡳ ᠮᠠᡳᠯᠠᠰᡠᠨ
    ᠯᡠᠪᡵᡳ ᠮᠠᡳᠯᠠᠰᡠᠨ
    22 ditë më parë

    An Asgard Archaea? Hmmmm... I would like some Goa’uld Archaea, please!

  93. An ok cookie
    An ok cookie
    22 ditë më parë

    Now I wanna know more about giant viruses, like you can't just drop a bombshell like that

  94. captain0080
    captain0080
    22 ditë më parë

    Oh yeah, i'm all up for the micothondria.

  95. Two heads are better than one
    Two heads are better than one
    22 ditë më parë

    THE CLOSER YOU "SCIENTISTS" LOOK , THE MORE CLUELESS YOU BECOME . ONE FINE DAY YOU WILL SEE THE LIGHT .

  96. TwoGun Gunnar
    TwoGun Gunnar
    22 ditë më parë

    These mitochondria look like turds.

  97. David Nuttall
    David Nuttall
    22 ditë më parë

    It is pretty clear that plants' chloroplasts were originally a free-floating cyanobacteria relative that got absorbed by a fungal cell who realized, "This guy dumps sugar! I'm keeping him." Over time several of the from the chloroplasts got moved into the nucleus and now the plant cell controls the timing of chloroplasts' reproduction and other activities; the DNA in the chloroplast just makes the protein to maintain the organelle and turn red and blue light into sugars. Genetic sequencing has done a lot is showing how the plant cell controls its chloroplasts. If we could identify which specialist bacteria had relatives that became mitochondria, we could use similar genetic sequencing to determine the modern relationships between the cell and its organelles.

  98. kazuya99ace
    kazuya99ace
    22 ditë më parë

    Come with me, and you'll be, in a world of pure invagination~

  99. Matt Alencar
    Matt Alencar
    22 ditë më parë

    An giant virus, an archea and a bacteria enter in a bar...

  100. Alexander Of Rhodes
    Alexander Of Rhodes
    22 ditë më parë

    #BlebsAreReal