Cephalopods Have a Totally Wild Way of Adapting

1 735 Shikime 174 mijë

With their squishy bodies and color-changing abilities, octopuses and other cephalopods already look like our planet’s resident aliens. But researchers have discovered yet another thing that separates them from most other animals on Earth!
Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.025
doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05198
doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa172
doi.org/10.1038/s41587-019-0013-6
doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyw052
doi.org/10.1126/science.1212795
pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29182635/
Image sources:
Thank you to 7Seil for the footage of an octopus opening a jar! (alfirst.info/load/k62ddJDYlZujh58/video)
www.istockphoto.com/vector/genetics-flat-design-baby-icon-gm915904400-252052163
www.istockphoto.com/photo/cuttlefish-gm139531609-667477
www.istockphoto.com/vector/education-icons-gm538049914-95611693
www.istockphoto.com/vector/cooking-class-chef-cook-stick-figure-pictogram-icons-gm496989862-78859591
www.istockphoto.com/vector/set-of-kitchen-utensil-icon-gm1296529250-389920253
www.istockphoto.com/vector/hot-pepper-flat-design-mexico-icon-with-side-shadow-gm926930526-254309654
www.istockphoto.com/vector/salt-or-pepper-shaker-icon-gm944153334-257926040
www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/227559.php
www.istockphoto.com/photo/octopus-vulgaris-gm655094820-120552077
www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/227560.php?from=459271
www.istockphoto.com/photo/a-nautilus-in-the-beautiful-blue-ocean-gm140789712-19146667
www.istockphoto.com/photo/octopus-tentacles-and-suckers-gm507858277-45917644

Komente

  1. deepsy2k
    deepsy2k
    Ditë më parë

    Nautiloids: "Who did you call stupid?!"

  2. sunspot42
    sunspot42
    5 ditë më parë

    Hmmm. Taking this shortcut might be the reason why they haven’t evolved higher intelligence even tho they had some of the key ingredients to exploit it. They simply evolve too slowly for it to have happened, at least yet.

  3. B
    B
    5 ditë më parë

    For the algorithm.

  4. 12345 67890
    12345 67890
    6 ditë më parë

    *someone mentionsmRNA* 2019: Oh what's that? 2021: Leo di Caprio pointing at screen meme

  5. Jack Kraken
    Jack Kraken
    6 ditë më parë

    Trump:"I could have been President of Space"

  6. dAt bOi
    dAt bOi
    7 ditë më parë

    They are Just build diffrent

  7. W R
    W R
    8 ditë më parë

    It's been a while ago on

  8. W R
    W R
    8 ditë më parë

    Oh yeah

  9. Andrea Q.
    Andrea Q.
    13 ditë më parë

    Bruh... Eating octopuses should be banned

    1. Fundamental Fanatic
      Fundamental Fanatic
      11 ditë më parë

      but they are delicious

  10. Meÿli Vaisyl
    Meÿli Vaisyl
    16 ditë më parë

    1:48 When Hank said "think of it like cooking" I heard " think of it like cocaine" and let me tell you I was VERY confused for a good minute 😂

  11. Kathy L
    Kathy L
    16 ditë më parë

    Wait, when do humans edit their mRNA?

  12. 菱角
    菱角
    17 ditë më parë

    The Mollusc Era is coming

  13. Robert Lin
    Robert Lin
    17 ditë më parë

    The only thing I want to know is: Why they haven't conquered the World yet?

  14. Chelsea Schultz
    Chelsea Schultz
    18 ditë më parë

    I just wrapped up a unit on evolution with my Biology students. I'm now starting a unit on protein synthesis. This video is a perfect way to tie the two together!

  15. Cole Davidson
    Cole Davidson
    18 ditë më parë

    Do they edit their mRNA consciously or just automatically?

  16. Bea Chapman
    Bea Chapman
    19 ditë më parë

    My favorite guy talking about my favorite class. This is a good day.

  17. John Mandrake
    John Mandrake
    19 ditë më parë

    reminds me of this sci-fi novel called Sphere, its just radical how it uses squids. You should check it out, its by the same author as Jurassic Park

  18. Cyrus Dariush
    Cyrus Dariush
    20 ditë më parë

    You may not be aware that m-RNA in eukaryotes in all eukaryotic cell is from nuclear RNA which contains Introns doesn’t contain protein information. So how is these cephalopods is different than this process done in all eukaryotes. I bet they use similar mechanisms no longer RNA modification is restricted to introns but also some Exons. You would not need many mutations for that to happen

  19. Mana Avey
    Mana Avey
    20 ditë më parë

    Resident Alien has confirmed that cephalopods are indeed not from Earth

  20. DiiiCA
    DiiiCA
    21 ditë më parë

    And I thougt they were couldn't get any whackier...

  21. Pi Isom
    Pi Isom
    21 ditë më parë

    A video on how epigenomes evolve

  22. Jessica Ramirez
    Jessica Ramirez
    21 ditë më parë

    8939wpeososoq0ap9l(()(())))!

  23. Jessica Ramirez
    Jessica Ramirez
    21 ditë më parë

    989

  24. JayneCobb88
    JayneCobb88
    21 ditë më parë

    Humans: Gene therapy is so new and amazing! Octopus: Hold my autonomously intelligent arm.

  25. Genesis Stewart
    Genesis Stewart
    21 ditë më parë

    D: i already knew this. And the immortal jelly. Impossible isn't in biology

  26. ricky colman
    ricky colman
    21 ditë më parë

    It's really cool they do so much editing, but in that sense I guess humans are special too, as there have been studies showing human cells are capable of mRNA editing too! 😄

  27. ArcaneHero
    ArcaneHero
    21 ditë më parë

    Me wishing i could do what other animals do like Thanos adding a stone to the glove

  28. soul reaver
    soul reaver
    22 ditë më parë

    Yes we know gen A for Covid-19 infected are one's with biblical names

  29. Jessica Sanchez
    Jessica Sanchez
    22 ditë më parë

    Octopuses Stone Age will be basically compared to our technological age

  30. fuferito
    fuferito
    22 ditë më parë

    It's too bad octopus and squid are so delicious... And, including a recipe book and a chef in this short clip might have been a Freudian slip from the producers.

  31. fuferito
    fuferito
    22 ditë më parë

    I highly recommend the documentary, _My Octopus Teacher._

  32. Zes
    Zes
    22 ditë më parë

    wrg

    1. Clayton Crites
      Clayton Crites
      9 ditë më parë

      IIIIEEESSSS with two tongs demon lol

  33. Tragoudistros.MPH
    Tragoudistros.MPH
    22 ditë më parë

    Could edits be more common in neurons because neurons are least likely to be replaced?

  34. Abdullah Hajibaba
    Abdullah Hajibaba
    23 ditë më parë

    You should give more simple examples for us mortals.

  35. Glenn Tang
    Glenn Tang
    23 ditë më parë

    Octopodes (Yes, really--it's a Greek root) diverged from the common ancestral line before the anus was developed, so it's no wonder that they're weird. (Seriously. Before the evolution of the butthole, a single hole served as mouth and butt, sucking in food and spitting out waste. Humans developed from the line that grew a new mouth and kept using the old hole for pooping. Hence, we develop mouth-second (deuterostome). Octopuses (this is also a correct plural) came from the line that grew a dedicated butt and continued to eat with the original hole.

  36. Kale Abelgas
    Kale Abelgas
    23 ditë më parë

    I thought you were going to say replace the chef

  37. ninthRing
    ninthRing
    23 ditë më parë

    If they didn't die generationally after reproducing, *Cephalopods* would have made a much bigger impact on our biological world's history. It honestly makes me wonder if we could gene-geneer🐙 a more social varient of this family of organisms, perhaps from cuttlefish which already communicate with their chromatophore-based language of patterns & colours... (🐙Though the Ethics of this kind of genetic engineering is at best pretty murky. )

  38. hacked2123
    hacked2123
    23 ditë më parë

    And they have better eyes than us...if they were on land and enjoyed oxygen as much as humans do, we'd be screwed, lol.

  39. Cristian García
    Cristian García
    23 ditë më parë

    Genetic metaprogramming

  40. Martial Lee - Vegan Roundhouse Kicks
    Martial Lee - Vegan Roundhouse Kicks
    23 ditë më parë

    I for one preemptively welcome our new cephalopod overlords.

  41. Amine Err
    Amine Err
    23 ditë më parë

    "evolution" lol

    1. John Thumble
      John Thumble
      21 ditë më parë

      Lol silly creatard

  42. Travelers
    Travelers
    24 ditë më parë

    Bioshock when?

  43. ImOnTheWeb98
    ImOnTheWeb98
    24 ditë më parë

    IT ISN’T OCTOPI??

  44. Will Holz
    Will Holz
    24 ditë më parë

    Could this be part of why they don't live so long? We always joke that if they ever got organized they'd take over the oceans, especially having had so much more time than us...but maybe the thing that makes them so clever also limits their lifespans to the point where that hasn't happened?

  45. Tzisorey Tigerwuf
    Tzisorey Tigerwuf
    24 ditë më parë

    "You can edit DNA on-the-fly? With that kind of technology you could cure cancer!" "But I don't want to cure cancer - I want to squeeze into small spaces and choose winning soccer teams"

  46. Marko Jerinic
    Marko Jerinic
    24 ditë më parë

    On the fly edits? Oh yeah we gonna see octopuses cranking 90s soon. Fortnite zoomers will love it. This comment will get easy likes PauseChamp

  47. Jeacom
    Jeacom
    24 ditë më parë

    OMG, cephalopods have a preprocessor engine in their genetic code?

  48. melanezoe
    melanezoe
    24 ditë më parë

    Lol. Just watched a six-yea-old SciShow. My, my! Hank was soooo young.

  49. nariu 7times
    nariu 7times
    24 ditë më parë

    This is so well researched, written, designed, animated, presented... THANK YOU to all who work on Sci Show

  50. Dracowolfie
    Dracowolfie
    24 ditë më parë

    Watching this the day after watching My Octopus Teacher really just confirms how nuts they are. It gives me a lot of faith about the evolutionary existence of intelligence. If and when humans die out or evolve into something else, it seems pretty certain that other creatures will eventually fill our gap of self-aware intelligence.

  51. Terra Ashley
    Terra Ashley
    24 ditë më parë

    Cephalopods are prettier than humans. You can't change my mind.

  52. DaBlondDude
    DaBlondDude
    24 ditë më parë

    So a mutant octopus would just be a normal octopus?

  53. Bethany Gleason
    Bethany Gleason
    24 ditë më parë

    Well Hank, there's your Superior Fish Beings right there!

  54. SquidKing
    SquidKing
    24 ditë më parë

    Guys it's all true trust me

  55. Bard Fall
    Bard Fall
    25 ditë më parë

    No wonder tentacles represent elderitch life forms...

  56. épinards & caramel
    épinards & caramel
    25 ditë më parë

    Are we really, really sure they're from Earth though

  57. Crew-L-T
    Crew-L-T
    25 ditë më parë

    Maybe there is a related reason that they only live for around 2 years?

  58. DJ Wolfram @ESVS
    DJ Wolfram @ESVS
    25 ditë më parë

    Plural: octopi. Silly mistake really, for a smart channel.

    1. Kyle Mitchell
      Kyle Mitchell
      24 ditë më parë

      The plural form of "octopus" is "octopuses". Since the word is derived from Greek, the _technical_ plural would be "octopodes", but there's a reason that isn't commonly heard. And English words like "octopus" go well with English pluralizations like "octopuses"; nothin' fancy needed. The one thing "octopus" is _not_ is Latin-derived, so "octopi" was never a valid form of any word. qz.com/1446229/let-us-finally-resolve-the-octopuses-v-octopi-debate/

  59. Alice Weirdopants
    Alice Weirdopants
    25 ditë më parë

    Dat amount of shook

  60. ANUSHKA JAIN
    ANUSHKA JAIN
    25 ditë më parë

    You mean hot pockets?

  61. aariaMB
    aariaMB
    25 ditë më parë

    We seriously need to research using cephalopod DNA in therapeutic circumstances for humans.

  62. kwanarchive
    kwanarchive
    25 ditë më parë

    It's cool that they can edit genetic instructions on the fly, but where do they get the fly from?

  63. Tabby Wolf
    Tabby Wolf
    25 ditë më parë

    Good God Cephalopods are Overpowered in Intellect and Stealth!

  64. Benjamin Tassone
    Benjamin Tassone
    25 ditë më parë

    So that’s why they haven’t become crabs yet

  65. The Sentient
    The Sentient
    25 ditë më parë

    Imagine if they had 40 years or more to live instead of 3. Under water civilization?

  66. Northern Mike
    Northern Mike
    25 ditë më parë

    So after we destroy us and a lot of other life forms, the Cephalopods will survive the quickly changing environment. Good for them😉

  67. Rusdani Budi Wicaksono
    Rusdani Budi Wicaksono
    25 ditë më parë

    ...So you sayin' Zerg is real, and they already here?

  68. Hunter Chaney
    Hunter Chaney
    25 ditë më parë

    MY. FAVORITE. ANIMAL. BRANCH. EVER!

  69. Clay Soggyfries
    Clay Soggyfries
    25 ditë më parë

    Octopi*

  70. Piemasteratron
    Piemasteratron
    25 ditë më parë

    Octopuses are just amazing (and a little scary, like I wouldn't want to happen upon one unexpectedly)

  71. Meme Shorti
    Meme Shorti
    25 ditë më parë

    Octopi, squids, and cuttlefishes may be too freaky to be an earth creature, but they’re too fascinating to take our minds off them. Heck, I was fascinated by paper clip squids!

  72. CagTzn
    CagTzn
    25 ditë më parë

    I know you are trying to dumb it down so everyone understands but "editing" is too vague. What are they doing differently? Anything? 90%+ of human mRNAs are edited one way or another (cap, splicing, transport factors).

  73. Irun S
    Irun S
    26 ditë më parë

    Wow, does that mean that if they can somehow get their mRNA edits back to their DNA, they can fast track their evolution?

  74. Dr Xeno
    Dr Xeno
    26 ditë më parë

    Is he the guy from It'sOkayToBeSmart

  75. Goth Vaush - Jedi Master Engineer
    Goth Vaush - Jedi Master Engineer
    26 ditë më parë

    I told you they were from Alderaan!

  76. I’m already Sans Undertale
    I’m already Sans Undertale
    26 ditë më parë

    Wow

  77. Stanislav Mudrets
    Stanislav Mudrets
    26 ditë më parë

    It's just another way of doing evolution through natural selection. DNA editing is just as accountable to natural selection as acquiring new mutations. In either case, its tinkering. It's cool that they have an interesting way of adapting to different environments, but you also have to remember the many imperfections they have - for example: suboptimal oxygen carrying capacity in their blood as well as lack of myelination of their axons. Both create problems that are absent in vertebrates. Problems that cephalopods deal with in a different way.

  78. Sascha
    Sascha
    26 ditë më parë

    OCTOPI...

  79. Boris Borcic
    Boris Borcic
    26 ditë më parë

    What's missing is a proper discussion of how the RNA editing is decided or programmed. The video implies, or almost so, that this editing is the result of on-the-fly decisions, which is bull.

  80. shiva Subramanian
    shiva Subramanian
    26 ditë më parë

    Will it affect their offspring....

  81. John Bush
    John Bush
    26 ditë më parë

    So basically, what you're saying is that we should give octopus's psilocybin mushrooms

  82. Sava Stepanović
    Sava Stepanović
    26 ditë më parë

    hey its the tiktok guy

  83. Dimitrios Spyridon Chytiris
    Dimitrios Spyridon Chytiris
    26 ditë më parë

    Wonderfully weird but also delicious 😋

  84. Pie A La Mode
    Pie A La Mode
    26 ditë më parë

    So we can't selective breed them to be pets? D:

  85. Thresher
    Thresher
    26 ditë më parë

    SR and Brant vie for dominance as your next president of space! I vote for a dance off!

  86. Timothy Greer
    Timothy Greer
    26 ditë më parë

    and that is why I stopped eating Octopuss but still enjoy their less smart cousins, the Squid

  87. TR-8R
    TR-8R
    26 ditë më parë

    Wait so are you telling me cephalopods can RESPEC? IN REAL LIFE? Warm water: dps life pew pew Cold water: I'm a TANK NOW

  88. Eduardo Demetrio Garcia Martinez
    Eduardo Demetrio Garcia Martinez
    26 ditë më parë

    are you talking about splaicing?

  89. //\\//\\//\\ film
    //\\//\\//\\ film
    26 ditë më parë

    🐙🦑

  90. Troy Clayton
    Troy Clayton
    26 ditë më parë

    1:31 "That's evolution in a nutshell". Modeling shows that in all but the smallest populations beneficial mutations are doomed to be lost due to genetic drift. It just doesn't work like we tend to think it does. Evolution in a nutshell would be bottleneck events and founder effects. Just saying. Cool video!

  91. JareMicah Schmidt
    JareMicah Schmidt
    26 ditë më parë

    I think adaptability of mind is far more useful to spread your genes then adaptability of genes. The octopuses might have survived better because they can engineer more solutions to more problems rather then breed to solve problems.

  92. sdfkjgh
    sdfkjgh
    26 ditë më parë

    SAY IT WITH ME NOW: OC- *TOP* -O-DEES! NOT octopuses, or (even worse) octopi, octopodes!

  93. Thevrex
    Thevrex
    26 ditë më parë

    nah, these things can't be from this galaxy, i am not convinced

  94. Replicator Fifth
    Replicator Fifth
    26 ditë më parë

    Cephalopods are the real master race. Also they are adorable!!

  95. Clay Owlglass
    Clay Owlglass
    26 ditë më parë

    I mean, my understanding is that you can see meaningful changes in genetic code, functionally speaking, simply by turning genes "on" or "off." In that sense, humans too can "edit" their DNA on the fly by turning genes on/off (this is one of histamine's, the most overlooked neurotransmitter of all time, many mysterious and magical powers). I'm no geneticist, but I'd be willing to bet genes that have been turned off don't get mRNA copies made of them. So, it's really not _just_ about permanent mutations with humans either. You can have a gene for a disease turned off, and if it gets turned on, you have disease, and if it gets turned off again, you do not have disease anymore. I feel like this fact gets completely overlooked literally everywhere and always

  96. von nobody
    von nobody
    26 ditë më parë

    Isn't this simply zip-archive for DNA? Humans simply keep each protein instruction as separate genes that have its own enable/disable triggers, Cephalopods keep multiple similar protein in one sequence of genes and have simple genes elsewhere that can "extract" final correct genes form basic one. And this analogy even explain why they evolve slower, its harder to alter ziped text file than plain text file.

  97. Christopher Arevalo
    Christopher Arevalo
    26 ditë më parë

    Octo-Dad seems a lot more plausible all of a sudden.

  98. KG Grimes
    KG Grimes
    26 ditë më parë

    I'm convinced that cephelepods will take over the world. It may not be in our life times.... but they shall rise. 🐙

  99. Olly
    Olly
    26 ditë më parë

    Million-dollar idea: We make a neural network mess with some creature's DNA. Each time they produce something we want we reward it. After being trained for a long time we could create awesome creatures when we have a neural network that knows how to change every part of DNA and what the outcome is going to be

  100. Jonathan Williams
    Jonathan Williams
    26 ditë më parë

    Hey sci show You’ve got an impersonator