The 22 Year-Old Chemist Who Changed Leprosy Treatment | Great Minds

563 Shikime 57 mijë

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A cure for leprosy eluded humans for thousands of years, until the pioneering chemistry work of Alice Ball. With her treatment, patients recovered enough to be discharged from the hospital by the hundreds.
Hosted by: Stefan Chin
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Sources:
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682583/
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC444418/
www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Parascandola/publication/277597573_Chaulmoogra_Oil_and_the_Treatment_of_Leprosy/links/58eb9e430f7e9b6b274b9200/Chaulmoogra-Oil-and-the-Treatment-of-Leprosy.pdf
www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2018/02/alice-ball-leprosy-hansens-disease-hawaii-womens-history-science/
www.uhfoundation.org/impact/students/woman-who-changed-world
www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-saponification-605959
www.chemistryworld.com/culture/alice-balls-treatment-for-leprosy/4011313.article?adredir=1
www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/esters/background.html
zenodo.org/record/1496183#.X7Y2QWhKiUm
www.northwesthawaiitimes.com/hnsept07.htm
books.google.de/books?id=uomdpaHWaC0C&pg=PA178&lpg=PA178&dq=alice+augusta+ball&redir_esc=y&hl=de#v=onepage&q=alice%20ball&f=false
www.hawaii.edu/offices/bor/distinction.php?person=ball
www.imdb.com/title/tt10318550/
Images:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Leprosorium.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:M_leprae_ziehl_nielsen2.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alicia_Augusta_Ball.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:James_Presley_Ball_(1825-1904)_from_Willis_1993_from_Mumford_1980.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Colleges_and_Universities_-_Cornell_University_-_one_of_the_dark_rooms_-_NARA_-_26425820.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Image-Hydnocarpus_annamensis_Flacourtiaceae.JPG
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chaulmoogra_oil_factory_of_Prasana_Kumar_Sen,_Chittagong._Ph_Wellcome_V0027698.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pouring_lye_into_water_to_make_soap.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dr_Isabel_Kerr_European_missionary_vaccinating_a_child_Wellcome_L0069838.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Marotti.jpg

Komente

  1. SciShow
    SciShow
    6 ditë më parë

    Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow to try their new Statistics course. Sign up now and get 20% off an annual Premium subscription.

    1. Al To
      Al To
      14 orë më parë

      Buen video, creo que esos procesos en cámaras de alta presión o de más gravedad o menos gravedad, poder hacerlo con cámaras de presión y otros métodos se debería experimentar para ver si se puede mejorar, sugerencia.

    2. Christopher Aragon
      Christopher Aragon
      6 ditë më parë

      App to ljxxigiufdA

  2. Sonqa Sawa
    Sonqa Sawa
    Ditë më parë

    Pity it took so long for her work to be recognised and rewarded. However prejudice against gender and ethnicity was far more openly prevalent and the norm at the time of her death.

  3. Jeff Miller
    Jeff Miller
    Ditë më parë

    Great episode!

  4. Sweith Shetty
    Sweith Shetty
    3 ditë më parë

    1:54 Well these aren't Chinese, look like Indians 😅

  5. Grace Habecker
    Grace Habecker
    3 ditë më parë

    Finally! She’s been my favorite historical scientist so it’s great there’s a sci show video now.

  6. Peters Zeug
    Peters Zeug
    3 ditë më parë

    African american? I wouldn't have thought of her as black from the picture. Judging from the picture, she could be from any country lol

  7. John Green
    John Green
    3 ditë më parë

    Love how these videos are copy and paste of wikipedia

  8. Citizen Naught
    Citizen Naught
    3 ditë më parë

    H

  9. Marisa Nya
    Marisa Nya
    3 ditë më parë

    It's ridiculously unfortunate she died so young. She could have defended her work publically if she were alive, and seen the fruits of her labour. RIP

  10. Aviel
    Aviel
    3 ditë më parë

    What was her cause of death?

  11. Akmal Karimov
    Akmal Karimov
    4 ditë më parë

    When it started with an ad, video became unwatchable instantly, lost interest

  12. Cornbreadfed kirkpatrick
    Cornbreadfed kirkpatrick
    4 ditë më parë

    I wonder how many fantastic minds were overlooked, sad really

  13. science world
    science world
    4 ditë më parë

    Very nice information love ❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤❤🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸 USA and Alice Ball mam from 🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳🇮🇳 India

  14. EocsxRampage
    EocsxRampage
    5 ditë më parë

    My last name is Ball and I approve this message 💯

  15. Joey Cook
    Joey Cook
    5 ditë më parë

    Bill: Let’s just leave out the part about her mysteriously dying at 24. Absolutely no one will wonder about that. Alice: You mean you’re afraid if we even mention the circumstances of her death we’ll be drummed out of this building like hostages, removed from our jobs and assaulted at our homes for being racists? Bill: ...

  16. Lolly67895
    Lolly67895
    5 ditë më parë

    legit spent most of this video thinking she was alice paul and being very confused

  17. The God Emperor
    The God Emperor
    5 ditë më parë

    Once again, I am asking we get an episode on Norman Borlaug :D more need to learn of the life of the man who "saved a BILLION lives"

  18. Ava Fisher
    Ava Fisher
    5 ditë më parë

    The band Helion Prime just released a song about Ball and her work a few months ago, it's called Reawakening! If you like science history and metal/rock music I highly recommend checking them out, their last album was actually all about scientists who went unappreciated/unnoticed in their time but who were super influential in their legacy

  19. Alex Master
    Alex Master
    5 ditë më parë

    But how can you say she did that?

  20. Kallian Publico
    Kallian Publico
    5 ditë më parë

    Kind of shady this presentation. How did Ball die? Leprosy? Is she a relative of Samuel Ball from "the mystery of oak island"? You call this a treatment but conspicuously leave off the word cure. Is there a cure for Leprosy? Is a successful treatment the same as a cure if the treatment doesn't always work?

    1. Elizabeth
      Elizabeth
      2 orë më parë

      Google exists and would have given you those answers faster than typing out these questions

  21. Dread Pirate
    Dread Pirate
    5 ditë më parë

    What does her race or gender have to do with this episode? Isn't there just one race the human race?

  22. AUSHAUN MITCHELL
    AUSHAUN MITCHELL
    6 ditë më parë

    i love your videos

  23. Lars Arne
    Lars Arne
    6 ditë më parë

    Aah somehow I've read "Alice's Ball shaving Live at 22 (o'clock)" for a fraction of a second 😅 But this does not change the fact that she's truly a great mind

  24. tTsch00f
    tTsch00f
    6 ditë më parë

    In a video partially about Alice Ball not being credited for her work, why not put her name in the title? Seems kind of hypochritical...

  25. Questa Semplice Animazione
    Questa Semplice Animazione
    6 ditë më parë

    stop idolizing scientists.

  26. kentarouification
    kentarouification
    6 ditë më parë

    I think Dean should be discredited and publicly shamed by making a plaque right next to Alice's plaque.

  27. Michael Holst
    Michael Holst
    6 ditë më parë

    Great video, scishow! Would love to see more videos on scientists who are not as well known and undercovered

  28. Phil Boswell
    Phil Boswell
    6 ditë më parë

    Wikipedia has a nice article about her: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Ball Interestingly I don't think they have one for Harry Holmann or for Arthur Dean ;-)

  29. -
    -
    6 ditë më parë

    2:02 - Ah yes, the good old electric needle hut. Doh!

  30. Gregory Whittaker
    Gregory Whittaker
    6 ditë më parë

    Helping to end the erasure of BIPOC and women from the history of the sciences while encouraging future generations and teaching some basic chemistry that remains relevant to pharmaceutical technology to this day, now this is what I love about SciShow.

  31. rudeboymon
    rudeboymon
    6 ditë më parë

    Eugene funny, Dan no funny

  32. Christopher Stewart
    Christopher Stewart
    6 ditë më parë

    You guys are trying waaay hard to color things up. I know you can't help yourselves it's instinct.

    1. Angel H
      Angel H
      6 ditë më parë

      Watching a 5 minute video about a Black woman has got you that triggered? Sad.

  33. Mad Robertson
    Mad Robertson
    6 ditë më parë

    More black scientists for black history month and forever please

  34. Malachite Mack
    Malachite Mack
    6 ditë më parë

    Thank you Alice Ball.

  35. Slackdragon
    Slackdragon
    6 ditë më parë

    Happy Arbitrary Human Attribute Month, everybody!

  36. J. B.
    J. B.
    6 ditë më parë

    It was as useful as Carvoline. As in-not.

  37. twocvbloke
    twocvbloke
    6 ditë më parë

    Being shunned and isolated from communities is a fate awaiting the anti-vaxxers... :P

    1. LeviathantheMighty
      LeviathantheMighty
      6 ditë më parë

      There are now two groups of anti vaxxers. Ones against all/most vaccines and those who are only against the vaccine which is worse than the disease, corona. There's too much about it that doesn't make sense.

  38. Dan Litt
    Dan Litt
    6 ditë më parë

    Nothing infuriates me more than hearing of brilliant people whose achievements were stolen or erased from history.

    1. Kylie Pechler
      Kylie Pechler
      6 ditë më parë

      Same here, the injustice is so frustrating!

  39. Pixel Pusher
    Pixel Pusher
    6 ditë më parë

    thanks Alice

  40. Richard Andrews
    Richard Andrews
    6 ditë më parë

    Unfortunately and unsurprisingly this has been going on forever. Black and other minorities just written out of history, or their works just blatantly stolen. I'm not blaming "white" people, and yes it happens to them also. I'm just stating a fact that there are many Americans who still believe only "whites" contributed to OUR country. They refuse to even entertain the idea that other people have gave so much to OUR country. It is important to teach REAL history, and I truly thank people like that professor. Who knew the truth and gave her the credit she deserved. This is important to bring everyone together who constantly want to separate Americans.

  41. Nelson Swanberg
    Nelson Swanberg
    6 ditë më parë

    Young people find your science. You will be a scientist or literally a lab rat.

  42. Robert Schlesinger
    Robert Schlesinger
    6 ditë më parë

    Excellent video. Very interesting, informative and worthwhile video.

  43. Amit das
    Amit das
    6 ditë më parë

    TY 😃

  44. A New view
    A New view
    6 ditë më parë

    People know kim Kardashian but don't know her. 😑

  45. Aswath Karunakaran
    Aswath Karunakaran
    6 ditë më parë

    I am a leprologist. Chaulmoogra oil was torture for the patients. It's effectiveness was a pharma lobby tale. Please read about it. A chemist deals with molecules not patients. The scientific methodologies used and understanding of evidence was highly suspect during those time. Her method must have been great for saponification and stuff but chaulmoogra oil was not effective in the first place.

  46. anish aditya
    anish aditya
    6 ditë më parë

    Its quiet incredible when thinking about these great scientific leaps are the once that we study in our 11th and 12th grade....

  47. OddLeah
    OddLeah
    6 ditë më parë

    Leprosy doesnt cause painful lesions, it causes nerve damage which REDUCES painful sensations. The lack of sensation leads to injuries going unnoticed and untreated. Even with the infection cured, people still had to deal with permanent sensation loss.

  48. Memeo Supremo
    Memeo Supremo
    6 ditë më parë

    People like her are people I want to hear about more

    1. firstname
      firstname
      5 ditë më parë

      Agreed! Us white people have erased history for too long. Time to unearth all of these amazing people 😁

  49. Demigod
    Demigod
    6 ditë më parë

    her death seems sketchy ...🤔

  50. FNHot
    FNHot
    6 ditë më parë

    look at the hair, and the facial features, you're telling me she was 100% black? ... or is this like Obama, or Mariah Carrey, where any sort of pigment, means we attribute all their success to their blackness, because THATS not racist at all ....

    1. Angel H
      Angel H
      3 ditë më parë

      Ypu have no idea how genetics work, do you? 🤦🏽‍♀️

    2. FNHot
      FNHot
      6 ditë më parë

      @Ionic-Android I didnt realize this video was made and posted in the 1950's, sorry.

    3. Ionic-Android
      Ionic-Android
      6 ditë më parë

      In a time where even being 1/16 black can land you in the back of the bus, yes

  51. Christian Graham
    Christian Graham
    6 ditë më parë

    There is a great little docudrama about Alice Ball on Amazon Prime. It's called The Ball Method.

  52. jcoronet2000
    jcoronet2000
    6 ditë më parë

    Frederick McKinley Jones invented transport refrigeration

  53. Ram. JR
    Ram. JR
    6 ditë më parë

    In any career people have to face colleagues who steal credits claiming other's work as their own. Let's just say Alice Ball was lucky enough to have a decent and professional person for a colleague. If she hadn't passed at such young age, we could have witnessed another groundbreaking discovery without doubt.

  54. damienh1001300
    damienh1001300
    6 ditë më parë

    ✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽✊🏽

  55. Dr Gutowski
    Dr Gutowski
    6 ditë më parë

    It is funny how many women you choose to spotlight... its almost as if you were... virtue signaling

  56. Saumitra Chakravarty
    Saumitra Chakravarty
    6 ditë më parë

    0:21 Wrong! Leprosy lesions are painless (at least physically).

  57. IamGhede
    IamGhede
    6 ditë më parë

    I was wondering why you did mention how she died and I see why you didn't. Altered death certificates? Chlorine poisoning? Yikes!

  58. Brendan King
    Brendan King
    6 ditë më parë

    I have a new video question. Trekking poles have become super popular among hikers in the last 40 years, so why did nobody use them before now?

    1. Elizabeth
      Elizabeth
      2 orë më parë

      They did. What you're looking for is the difference between the first use and the commercial production and selling of a product

    2. KryssLaBryn
      KryssLaBryn
      6 ditë më parë

      They did; they just called them walking sticks. :D

  59. Roselyn Campisi
    Roselyn Campisi
    6 ditë më parë

    I am very happy this was achnolaged!!!

  60. Pizza
    Pizza
    6 ditë më parë

    I’m glad that Harry Holmann fought for Ball’s credit but... Why the whole department let her colleague stole her credit in the first place?!! No one knew what she’s doing? Or more likely people turned a blind eye? Can’t really blame Arthur alone and Harry must’ve fought against the whole department. Wow

    1. Brady Wells
      Brady Wells
      6 ditë më parë

      It's actually a really common outcome for research assistants/grad students even today :-/ Your trajectory and success in academia (like most careers) usually hinges on letters of recommendations and connections facilitated by your direct superior. In their lab, working for them, you are really at their every whim and command. If you don't play by their rules -- they have the power to end your career before it begins... Things are getting better all the time, but it's still endemic.

  61. JoshKimchee
    JoshKimchee
    6 ditë më parë

    The Chaulmoogra tree on campus is now in the parking lot of the student services building... While Arthur Dean, who plagiarized this woman's work gets to have an entire building named after him. although he was the University's president and did contribute to our development somewhat, it was his plagiarism of Alice Ball's Fractionation of chaulmoogra oil that gave him that international fame and distinction. Alice Ball, on the other hand, gets a tree in a parking lot.

    1. Jeff Miller
      Jeff Miller
      Ditë më parë

      Sounds like it's time for a petition!

    2. Kylie Pechler
      Kylie Pechler
      6 ditë më parë

      Wow, that is so incredibly corrupt and sad : (

  62. Rem
    Rem
    6 ditë më parë

    Ooh Ooh AH AH AHHHHH!!!!!

  63. Semaj_502
    Semaj_502
    6 ditë më parë

    Why is it the people who could do the most in the world almost always seem to die before they ever really get the chance?

  64. Sorcerer's Apprentice
    Sorcerer's Apprentice
    6 ditë më parë

    Behind every brilliant woman...is a man trying to take credit for her work.

    1. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      @Ian Tarry Unfortunately Arthur Dean was president of the University, and Hollman's word didn't mean much to most at the time. We still continue to call the Chemistry building Dean Hall, while Alice Ball's tree is in the parking lot of the Student Services building.

    2. Ian Tarry
      Ian Tarry
      6 ditë më parë

      Yhep, thankfully this time there was a man willing to call him out on it and credit her and push back. Which considering the time and the fact she wasn't just a woman but a black woman was fairly brave and decent of him. We'd probably not even know her name without Harry Hollman standing up for her and saying what was not only true but needed saying. Sad Hollman had to but even today the actions of Deans wouldn't surprise me.

  65. Gordon Chin
    Gordon Chin
    6 ditë më parë

    A tragic loss to humanity to lose such a brilliant mind so young.

  66. DenkyMan
    DenkyMan
    6 ditë më parë

    That's nothing, I've made it to 40 without saving any lives, or even helping anyone. Beat that record.

    1. altrag
      altrag
      6 ditë më parë

      Challenge accepted! I'm 42 and completely useless!

  67. Klaes Regis
    Klaes Regis
    6 ditë më parë

    What does her skin color, gender and perhaps also her age have anything to do with her great discovery? Did it improve the discovery in any way?

    1. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      In the early 20th century, it was much harder for women, especially black women and other women of color to push through considering the rampant discrimination. Did you know back then it was common practice for professors to call their colleagues and ask for recommendations for students to pick out? It wasn't based on merit, it was based on who they liked the most, and that meant that Alice Ball surpassed insurmountable odds, and contributed a discovery to the world despite the added barriers she faced due to the even worse racism and sexism back then. Even then, white men in positions of power such as Arthur Dean found it appropriate to plagiarize the work of a brilliant young person who recently passed away. Is that not disgusting? Does that not infuriate you? She overcame so much, and when they passed away, her work was stolen, and for a while, that information was unrecognized.

  68. Shanta Kaneshiro
    Shanta Kaneshiro
    6 ditë më parë

    Oh cool! I've seen that plaque and tree.

  69. Francois Lacombe
    Francois Lacombe
    6 ditë më parë

    Interesting fact. Almost everyone in regions where leprosy exists have antibodies for the bacteria that causes it. This means that almost everyone catches the disease but are able to fight it off on their own before it causes any damage.

    1. Peter Gray
      Peter Gray
      6 ditë më parë

      The bacteria exists widely in soil, which is why everyone ends up exposed.

  70. Jenny Sweeney
    Jenny Sweeney
    6 ditë më parë

    Brilliant female scientist gets her work appropriated and credit stolen or sidelined by established male colleague: a tale old as time.

  71. Rick Seiden
    Rick Seiden
    6 ditë më parë

    EDIT: I'm leaving my comment as is below, but I want to say that I think what Alice did was amazing. What she did would be amazing today, when women in STEM fields still face unnecessary and unearned challenges and oppression. To do it when she did it, with all the obstacles that must have been in her way makes it doubly amazing. Alice Ball deserves so much credit for what she did. My comment below, I think, was poorly worded to give more credit to Harry than he deserved, and took the focus away from Alice's accomplishments. I didn't mean to do that. As 李承澤 states below, Harry, "deserves a nod, but not really credit," for doing the right thing. END EDIT Harry Hollmann could have just as easily disputed Arthur Dean's claims by saying they were his own, still not giving Alice Ball credit. This was in the early 1900's, and Harry Hollmann not only gave credit to the person who deserved it, but he gave credit to a WOMAN who deserved it. But it doesn't stop there. He gave credit to a BLACK WOMAN who deserved it. In the early 1900's. I think we need to give a lot of credit to Harry for doing that. Right after we finish celebrating Alice Ball's accomplishments, and mourning her early passing.

    1. Rick Seiden
      Rick Seiden
      16 orë më parë

      @李承澤 I didn't take it personally at all. I took it as a rare but refreshing civilized discourse on ALfirst. We need more of them! I'm glad you mentioned the Green Book. I had never heard of that (probably thanks to the fact that I grew up in the 70's and 80's and that I'm white). You're absolutely right. We need less Green Books and what they represent.

    2. 李承澤
      李承澤
      17 orë më parë

      @Rick Seiden Your acknowledgment is very much appreciated! Though in hindsight I hope that I didn’t come off as too harsh or personally targeting. To put my thoughts more clearly (sorry for incoming rant): I think trying to find a silver lining in an oppressive history is a part of our instinct. It takes a lot to overcome it, and I would have been the one typing out that exact sentiment just a short 2 years ago. Since then, what I learned was that: just as bigots were “of their time”, anti-bigots were very much “of their time” as well. Believing that people were capable of ethical thinking, It’s only fair to hold people, especially those who have had positive interactions with minorities, to the standards of the latter instead of the former. What Hollmann did was a decent thing, and I think it is worthy of praise as decency is often so rare. But making saviors out of decent men is how we got Green Book. The world can stand to have fewer Green Book’s. TL, DR: basically this: alfirst.info/load/iJSJhKXagNuYaIk/video

    3. Rick Seiden
      Rick Seiden
      5 ditë më parë

      @EighteenXVIII I'm concerned that you thought my comment would dissuade women from entering STEM fields in any way. It was not at all my intent, and if anyone at all thought it was in any way my intent, I apologize. Anyone who can succeed in STEM belongs in STEM. Period.

    4. EighteenXVIII
      EighteenXVIII
      5 ditë më parë

      At least where I live (West-EU), there are plenty of women in STEM nowadays. In fact women in general are outperforming men in higher education. Just want to point this out, because your post may dissuade women from entering the STEM field without a justified reason. I dropped out myself (being a guy), but there was about a 60/40 split in my classes in favor of men. I have reason to believe that it's even closer now. What you say may have been true 50 years ago, but things have changed radically in the past few decades.

    5. Rick Seiden
      Rick Seiden
      5 ditë më parë

      @Izzy King Izzy, you're welcome. Everyone in this thread has been nice to each other. I wish this was the norm.

  72. GwynevereTheDame
    GwynevereTheDame
    6 ditë më parë

    While much might not be known about her personal life with all her first we at least know she didn’t let anyone tell her ‘No’. I’m really happy she eventually gotten recognition for her amazing work :)

  73. snake698
    snake698
    6 ditë më parë

    Omg this is so sad

  74. Tikay’s Cake
    Tikay’s Cake
    6 ditë më parë

    Tragic how early women and poc scientists often got their work stolen. Whether by white/male colleagues or by the institutions they work for, it’s great now that we are getting see more content about the involvement of marginalized people in STEM industry.

  75. Matt Guitar
    Matt Guitar
    6 ditë më parë

    Germ theory is nonsense. Leprosy is not a contagious disease -- it's merely a consequence of unsanitary living conditions and insufficient nutrition.

    1. babecat2000
      babecat2000
      6 ditë më parë

      haha! Go kiss a lepor then and see what happens.

    2. Brady Wells
      Brady Wells
      6 ditë më parë

      gr8 b8 m8, I r8 8/8!

  76. Matt Guitar
    Matt Guitar
    6 ditë më parë

    SOOOOOYYYYY

  77. Julian Locke
    Julian Locke
    6 ditë më parë

    Dear SciShow, could you please insert the missing hyphen between "22" and "Year"?

  78. Eric Melto
    Eric Melto
    6 ditë më parë

    Brilliant woman. I wonder was she slow and methodical or quick and intuitive. Or both.

  79. Bethani T
    Bethani T
    6 ditë më parë

    Just like a man , stealing credit. Trash. Glad she got credit

    1. Circus Brains
      Circus Brains
      6 ditë më parë

      you should do lots more cardio

  80. Lucy Beasinger
    Lucy Beasinger
    6 ditë më parë

    Thank you for recognizing her and others.

  81. arxsyn
    arxsyn
    6 ditë më parë

    March 8 is International Women's Day! This lady is worthy of being remembered and celebrated. Thanks SciShow

    1. arxsyn
      arxsyn
      4 ditë më parë

      @JoshKimchee cool. What a shame it's not widely celebrated. Are there statues or portraits of her in public places in her memory?

    2. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      February 29th is recognized by the state government as Alice Ball day in Hawai'i, although many don't celebrate it, I think we should.

  82. Tobias Nyholm
    Tobias Nyholm
    6 ditë më parë

    I like these episodes when you present scientists that should get more credit for their work.

  83. Gautam Sarathy
    Gautam Sarathy
    6 ditë më parë

    At least Dr. Holmann/Holman actually fought to give her credit in some way. Considering the time period and who she was, that's extremely rare and praiseworthy.

    1. angryvikings
      angryvikings
      3 ditë më parë

      @Ady Yep, and while I do like knowing of stories of the real people behind science, I also try to do more background checking to make sure the stories are true (or at least as true as the information that exists)

    2. Ady
      Ady
      4 ditë më parë

      @angryvikings you get my thumbs up, I should’ve paid more attention. But there’s no denying such false claims are on the rise these days.

    3. angryvikings
      angryvikings
      4 ditë më parë

      @Ady While we don't know if Holmann was Jealous of Arthur Dean, and published the paper to take some credit away from him and give it to Ball. The fact that Dean responded later on that he "improved" Ball's work to make it more effective. IS in its self an admission the took her work. And once her work was finally discovered in the 1970's it was shown any modification to Ball's work Dean did, was very minor and had no significant medical improvement. THATS what makes this true. He admitted he took her work, and it was proven 50 years later that the changes done had no real improvement.

    4. Edward M
      Edward M
      5 ditë më parë

      @Gautam Sarathy I expected even less as well especially considering the time and he even named it ball’s method. And whether or not he did it for himself doesn’t matter it only matters that she got recognized for her treatment and the lives she saved.

    5. Rohan Nalawade
      Rohan Nalawade
      5 ditë më parë

      @Ady The right people need to be credited for the work no matter what. They spend their entire life working on it. The Good soul part is just not correct. Being as good soul has nothing to do with it. It's an obligation of us and scientific community to appreciate the work that they did. Also you seem to be awfully skeptical given her colour which I understand can be an over compensation but awfully bold of you to make these claims let's stick to what we know for sure instead of making speculation, not very scientific of you.

  84. Mascãdá Del Pántiòn
    Mascãdá Del Pántiòn
    6 ditë më parë

    So you're basically saying is there is literally no reason whatsoever for schools NOT to continuously teach who Alice ball is to this day.......

    1. Bob Bobber
      Bob Bobber
      6 ditë më parë

      Alice Ball.

  85. allwet66
    allwet66
    6 ditë më parë

    while it shouldn't be needed (it was in those times) I want to thank the man she worked with for not turning a blind eye to the theft of her work. not only did he not take credit, but spoke out against another for stealing the work of both a women and a black women at that. I wish i could believe it was normal to defend the work of minorities but sadly i just don't believe it was then and can barely believe it is now.

    1. Nina Dmytraczenko
      Nina Dmytraczenko
      6 ditë më parë

      Yes! We definitely need more allies

  86. Skrillamanch
    Skrillamanch
    6 ditë më parë

    I'm sure the dumbasses that disliked this was because GOD wasn't the answer....

  87. SuperIby
    SuperIby
    6 ditë më parë

    As a black person struggling through 3rd year Pharmacy - I think I've found my new idol! Amazing work!

    1. Jeff Miller
      Jeff Miller
      Ditë më parë

      Thanks for hanging in there. You're doing something really important.

    2. SuperIby
      SuperIby
      5 ditë më parë

      Thank you, all - I'll give it my utmost!

    3. SMOMEGA1
      SMOMEGA1
      5 ditë më parë

      Glad to know you are black 💪

    4. Walrus
      Walrus
      6 ditë më parë

      Good luck with your studies.

    5. Dannielle MacDonald
      Dannielle MacDonald
      6 ditë më parë

      @ffarkasm give yourself grace

  88. Colonel Banana
    Colonel Banana
    6 ditë më parë

    S tier scientist for sure.

    1. AleKO
      AleKO
      6 ditë më parë

      Damn, thought this'd be hyperbole. Not at all

    2. Nina Dmytraczenko
      Nina Dmytraczenko
      6 ditë më parë

      +

    3. Arthur Henrique D. A. Ribeiro
      Arthur Henrique D. A. Ribeiro
      6 ditë më parë

      That's a Scientist with a capital S too.

  89. Carn Soaks
    Carn Soaks
    6 ditë më parë

    I hate being turned into an emotional blubbering mess over how my partner's sex is still being treated by institutions. This a happy story. Here in OZ, 3 young aspiring politico women were sexually assaulted in our "Capitol Building" by a colleague. AND HAD TO GO TO THE PAPERS FOR SOME JUSTICE, because they got no support nor empathy from these 'liberal right-sided misogynists when they reported it.

  90. Nina Dmytraczenko
    Nina Dmytraczenko
    6 ditë më parë

    In Brazil the disease is only referred to as "hanseníase" (hanseniasis), since to this day "leprosy" is still a loaded term, and makes people reactive to diagnosis and unlikely to seek treatment :(

    1. ju.bas
      ju.bas
      4 ditë më parë

      Indeed, the health care system here works very hard to wipe out this horrible stigmatic term. I cannot even conceive a minimally sensible health worker saying “lepra” or “leproso”

    2. Lone Starr
      Lone Starr
      6 ditë më parë

      I guess it's comparable to telling someone that they have *_THE PLAGUE_* (yes, it's still around).

    3. TeutonicEmperor1198
      TeutonicEmperor1198
      6 ditë më parë

      Are you Ukrainian Brazilian?

  91. Minny Mouse
    Minny Mouse
    6 ditë më parë

    Some could all men's achievements in history were stolen from women or by default. So why is civilian patriarchal in the first place. And what about stem new. Men make most technical advances computers cars. Women make most biological break throughs

  92. Peter Schmidt
    Peter Schmidt
    6 ditë më parë

    Wait so what killed her at such a young age?

    1. mstraub704
      mstraub704
      3 ditë më parë

      On her death certificate, "CAUSE OF DEATH" says "Removal of tonsils 2 years ago - excessive inhilation of chlorine gas two yrs. ago", then this is crossed out: "complicated with bronchial tuberculosis, chronic asthma.", and contributory (secondary) cause says "Chronic asthma." See it for yourself at www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6DS3-JKV (access requires free familysearch.org account)

    2. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      Chlorine poisoning. The university didn't have proper lab safety procedures at the time and didn't mandate the use of fume hoods.

    3. Benjamin Lapin
      Benjamin Lapin
      6 ditë më parë

      Either tubocolosis or chlorine poisoning(she was a chemist during the time period of heavy safety regulation)

  93. Nina Dmytraczenko
    Nina Dmytraczenko
    6 ditë më parë

    Holy crap what a game changer! I wonder what impact this had on the leper colonies that existed...

    1. Headache Chronicles
      Headache Chronicles
      6 ditë më parë

      One of the largest leper colonies at the time was in Hawaii, and I would imagine it was a great help. If you want to learn more, Ask A Mortician has a video about the Hawaiian colony on her channel.

  94. Deborah Rhoades
    Deborah Rhoades
    6 ditë më parë

    👍🏾👍🏾👍🏾💙💙💙

  95. Bassotronics
    Bassotronics
    6 ditë më parë

    It’s really sad and ridiculous that such a great woman had to die at the age of 24. Something fishy must’ve been going on. I would have to look up the reasons why she died at such a young age.

    1. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      20 orë më parë

      @Willems Pierre it was actually just plagiarized by the president of the university at the time. He didn't cite or mention her at all in his publications

    2. Willems Pierre
      Willems Pierre
      20 orë më parë

      🤔 riiiight? Then gets her work practically stolen by a colleague...

    3. mstraub704
      mstraub704
      3 ditë më parë

      On her death certificate, "CAUSE OF DEATH" says "Removal of tonsils 2 years ago - excessive inhilation of chlorine gas two yrs. ago", then this is crossed out: "complicated with bronchial tuberculosis, chronic asthma.", and contributory (secondary) cause says "Chronic asthma." See it for yourself at www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6DS3-JKV (access requires free familysearch.org account)

    4. Lee Barnes
      Lee Barnes
      3 ditë më parë

      That chlorine episode would have brought on the tuberculosis like gang busters. Large numbers of people in those days were infected with it so just about impossible to avoid succumbing to it once the lung tissues were heavily damaged. A fair number of the count of the 1918 pandemic is a mix of that flu with the opportunistic tuberculosis.

    5. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      Chlorine poisoning. The university didn't have proper lab safety procedures at the time and didn't mandate the use of fume hoods.

  96. Minny Mouse
    Minny Mouse
    6 ditë më parë

    Doesn't bacteria trading genes horizontal gene transfer contradict Darwin's model of elimination

    1. altrag
      altrag
      6 ditë më parë

      Darwin didn't even know what genes were. All he saw was phenotypes. The specifics of _how_ those phenotypes were passed on didn't come around for a few decades later. I don't think bacteria had been discovered yet when Darwin was writing, though the time overlap is close so I might be wrong about that.

    2. Brady Wells
      Brady Wells
      6 ditë më parë

      Bacteria need to breakup and breakdown the contents of whatever surface/environment they grow on by excreting enzymes and taking up the broken down products to use for their metabolism. They can do this a lot more efficiently with other bacteria around helping in this enzymatic breaking down process. So, it's kind of like a balancing act between promoting growth of other bacteria around (which help individuals grow faster), while also being able to out-compete and engage in biochemical warfare with other species of bacteria by using antibiotics. Basically, having some neighbors is a good thing and they can promote growth in different environments by sharing genes/plasmids, but too many neighbors gets crowded and they can resort to killing them off.

    3. fiona fiona
      fiona fiona
      6 ditë më parë

      The "deversifying" step is usually ment to include only heritable mutations but obviously acts trough behaviour/culture/production beyond Darvins first theorys too.

    4. Itay
      Itay
      6 ditë më parë

      It doesn't- the bacteria that doesn't get the plasmid with the beneficial gen (if needed) will be eliminated

  97. huldu
    huldu
    6 ditë më parë

    At least she got recognized only a shame most people only ever get it when they're dead so not much use then.

    1. mapache pataki
      mapache pataki
      6 ditë më parë

      Thats right she didnt do it to get recognized, she actually helped.

    2. Garrett H
      Garrett H
      6 ditë më parë

      She wasn't doing it for recognition.

    3. JoshKimchee
      JoshKimchee
      6 ditë më parë

      Her recognition is now a tree in a parking lot, and Dean Hall is still named after a man who plagiarized his way to the top.

  98. United South Enterprises LLC
    United South Enterprises LLC
    6 ditë më parë

    Nice!!

  99. Florin Adrian
    Florin Adrian
    6 ditë më parë

    Amazing story, thank you.

  100. micheal broughton
    micheal broughton
    6 ditë më parë

    first

    1. micheal broughton
      micheal broughton
      6 ditë më parë

      S

    2. micheal broughton
      micheal broughton
      6 ditë më parë

      THE 1ST REPLY (O_O) /|\ ^ / \