The Scientist Who Made the Internet Possible | Great Minds: Narinder Singh Kapany

877 Shikime 88 mijë

Thanks to Qualcomm for sponsoring a portion of this video. Learn more at www.qualcomm.com/products/mobile-computing/mobile-pcs

The tools and resources the internet provides us have undoubtedly become everyday necessities for a large portion of the world. That technology would not have been possible without the research of an often overlooked scientist named Narinder Singh Kapany, who learned how to bend light.
Hosted by: Hank Green
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Sources:
www.nature.com/articles/173039b0
www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-49-8-779
www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-47-12-1109
www.scientificamerican.com/article/fiber-optics/
www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/advanced-physicsprize2009.pdf
news.rediff.com/report/2009/oct/08/how-india-missed-another-nobel-prize.htm
news.ucsc.edu/2020/12/narinder-kapany-in-memoriam.html
www.sikhfoundation.org/dr-narinder-s-kapany-120320/
www.tribuneindia.com/news/diaspora/father-of-fibre-optics-and-patron-of-sikh-arts-narinder-singh-kapany-dies-at-94-179849
web.archive.org/web/20100613143724/www.sff.net/people/Jeff.Hecht/history.html
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444354577.ch3
www.quora.com/How-does-information-travel-in-fibre-optic-cables
archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1999/11/22/269122/index.htm
www.atlantech.net/blog/bandwidth-fiber-vs-copper-which-is-the-clear-winner
aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.1653255
edition.cnn.com/2019/07/25/asia/internet-undersea-cables-intl-hnk/index.html
Image Sources:
www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/mature-lady-having-video-chat-with-female-business-partner-bho_o-kcwkhudrgsw
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_National_Inventors_Council,_1966.jpg
www.istockphoto.com/vector/fiber-optics-background-gm1269672263-372914102
www.istockphoto.com/photo/map-of-india-gm530825318-93548255
www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/rising-colorful-light-beams-and-streaks-seamless-motion-loop-full-hd-1920x1080-magenta-pink-swwd9zr9xj01k3scj
www.istockphoto.com/photo/imperial-college-london-gm1030098004-276003502
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Gastroscopio.jpg
commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?search=gastroscope&title=Special%3ASearch&go=Go&ns0=1&ns6=1&ns12=1&ns14=1&ns100=1&ns106=1#/media/File:How's_your_stomach?_Washington,_D.C.,_Sept._8._Dr._Fred_A._J._Geier,_member_of_the_faculty_of_Georgetown_University_Medical_School,_looks_thru_the_gastroscope,_a_newly_designed_instrument_by_LCCN2016872308.jpg
www.istockphoto.com/photo/fiber-optics-abstract-background-purple-blue-data-internet-technology-cable-gm1173891823-326235509
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charles_K._Kao_and_John_Fleming_2004.jpg
www.istockphoto.com/photo/math-physics-formulas-gm838557436-136518763
www.istockphoto.com/photo/black-strings-with-green-glowing-heads-suitable-for-technology-internet-and-computer-gm1191676934-338295093
www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/open-door---3d-animation-on-green-screen-sjvnlalilk7yo1vno
www.storyblocks.com/video/stock/cloud-computing-internet-of-things-iot-connected-storage-device-network-r1n3mrpddkgts5u3n
www.istockphoto.com/photo/light-background-gm180746711-24872906

Komente

  1. ਉਂਕਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ
    ਉਂਕਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ
    4 ditë më parë

    1:25 Panjabi ☺️💪⚔️

  2. Jason Ryan
    Jason Ryan
    12 ditë më parë

    𝙲𝚊𝚗𝚝 𝚋𝚎𝚕𝚒𝚎𝚟𝚎 𝙸 𝚠𝚊𝚜 𝚊𝚋𝚕𝚎 𝚝𝚘 𝚖𝚊𝚔𝚎 2𝚋𝚝𝚌 𝚠𝚒𝚝𝚑𝚒𝚗 𝚊 𝚠𝚎𝚎𝚔 𝚝𝚛𝚊𝚍𝚒𝚗𝚐 𝚠𝚒𝚝𝚑 𝙷𝚊𝚌𝚔_𝙶𝚊𝚗𝚍𝚢 𝚘𝚗 𝙸𝚗𝚜𝚝𝚊𝚐𝚛𝚊𝚖

  3. Abhishek Sengupta
    Abhishek Sengupta
    18 ditë më parë

    Narinder light Trapani

  4. Shane Morris
    Shane Morris
    19 ditë më parë

    And then the Australian government decided not to use any of this and we have worse internet speeds than some developing nations.

  5. Diddykong7
    Diddykong7
    23 ditë më parë

    dang dude qualcomm as a sponsor?

  6. 7lllll
    7lllll
    25 ditë më parë

    wouldn't internet still be possible with copper wires, just slower? pretty sure there would be some other improvements to make it pretty good even if not quite the same without fiberoptic cables

  7. GhostOfSparta
    GhostOfSparta
    26 ditë më parë

    Jai.Hind.Doston.🇮🇳 never felt so proud

  8. shiva Subramanian
    shiva Subramanian
    26 ditë më parë

    Thank you for making this video....love from 🇮🇳

  9. Christopher G
    Christopher G
    26 ditë më parë

    "Hear me out: What if we made a periscope out of nothing *but* glass?"

  10. Tasneem Bootwala
    Tasneem Bootwala
    28 ditë më parë

    I love to hear about indian scientists!

  11. Swagato Chatterjee
    Swagato Chatterjee
    28 ditë më parë

    I hate it when science presenters completely ignore the software part of how modern tech works. Vint Cerf's TCP/IP is no less of an engineering marvel than Golden Gate Bridge itself, and it is what powers the internet; not the physical media. Heck irrespective of what the media is, without error correction codes nothing works!

  12. Sujit Sadhnani
    Sujit Sadhnani
    28 ditë më parë

    Your pronunciation of Indian names reflects the effort you have had to put in

  13. Inazuma65
    Inazuma65
    28 ditë më parë

    Thank you, gentlemen.

  14. Munax
    Munax
    28 ditë më parë

    I wonder which portion of this video is sponsored.

  15. A friendly spazmoid
    A friendly spazmoid
    28 ditë më parë

    How does light transmit data?

  16. Homer's Iliad
    Homer's Iliad
    29 ditë më parë

    Advertisement successfully made unannoying. 👍

  17. gowzahr
    gowzahr
    29 ditë më parë

    I'm disappointed that I don't see any comments about fiber optics being dope.

  18. rareroe305
    rareroe305
    29 ditë më parë

    But no one is talking about how much the pink shirt draws the eye.

  19. KAĞAN NASUHBEYOĞLU
    KAĞAN NASUHBEYOĞLU
    29 ditë më parë

    👍 👏

  20. Jamie Magsakay
    Jamie Magsakay
    29 ditë më parë

    the dopest dopant of them all!

  21. Edward Chan
    Edward Chan
    29 ditë më parë

    Charles Kao is a Hong Kong scientist, for those who wondered.

  22. Deexquisite
    Deexquisite
    29 ditë më parë

    *HALF* a nobel prize?! Wtf is that even supposed to mean?

    1. mustardsfire22
      mustardsfire22
      29 ditë më parë

      A prize can be shared amongst three people max and there's a million dollars that goes with the prize.

  23. twothreebravo
    twothreebravo
    29 ditë më parë

    So what you're saying is that... the internet is a series of tubes

  24. Nais Tuke Baxtalo
    Nais Tuke Baxtalo
    29 ditë më parë

    Google Hedy Lamarr

  25. Me Me
    Me Me
    Muaj më parë

    Politicians, sports, movie and music celebs may take all the fame and headlines, but its scientists and engineers who shape the world.

  26. DenkyMan
    DenkyMan
    Muaj më parë

    Camp Safari

  27. FireSnake
    FireSnake
    Muaj më parë

    power and performance of laptops, we see a laggy cad drawing... Well that is oddly honest of the promotional footage :D

  28. bavondale
    bavondale
    Muaj më parë

    saying scientist who made internet possible but sponsored by qualcom. pretty sure qualcom didn't throw money at what's his face. nobody is throwing money at the family of George Boole. Cmon SciShow

  29. romulusnr
    romulusnr
    Muaj më parë

    To be fair, very early internet was over copper.

  30. Michael Johnson
    Michael Johnson
    Muaj më parë

    MEDICHLORIENTS lad... HOW ELSE DOES THE LIGHT BEND ON THE LIGHT SABERS TIP??? 😎

  31. Rich M
    Rich M
    Muaj më parë

    He is the Beckham of light. Goaaaaaal!

  32. Mudbill
    Mudbill
    Muaj më parë

    Not to discredit Kapany, but wouldn't you say his advances were built on top of the desire to improve an existing tool, and so the inventor of _that_ tool is similarly responsible for making the Internet possible? The chain can go almost infinitely far back since science builds on existing science. But crediting them all is obviously not feasible.

    1. SHYAM SUNDAR MANDI
      SHYAM SUNDAR MANDI
      27 ditë më parë

      he made the tool ,kao perfected it ! others used it to build internet

  33. Shashank kumar
    Shashank kumar
    Muaj më parë

    Never knew Kapani before. Thanks for sharing.

  34. Caterfree10
    Caterfree10
    Muaj më parë

    I am tickled pink by the fact that the guy who created fiber optic cables is described as bending light and is also Indian. One of the characters of Overwatch, Symmetra, is also Indian and her fight style involves bending light (albeit a much more fantastical version of such lmao)

  35. osmia
    osmia
    Muaj më parë

    Luv the "open the door" graphic

  36. BACHOMP
    BACHOMP
    Muaj më parë

    He still didn't actually find a way to "bend" light. He just found a way to make light travel straightly in short segments of a curved path

  37. Jared S
    Jared S
    Muaj më parë

    What if we didn't invent these fiber optics and relied on satellites for internet?

  38. Robert Klauco
    Robert Klauco
    Muaj më parë

    That Qualcomm sponsoring is very strange. I wanted to check what products they have. None - they are offering the Snapdragon 8cx platform for manufacturers only.

  39. sanjuansteve
    sanjuansteve
    Muaj më parë

    I think Einstein had it wrong and that time is constant, not the speed of light. I think dark matter density is the limiting factor to the speed of light and that gravity and dark matter density bend/pull on light (and everything else), not 'spacetime'. I think quartz pulses and atomic clocks are induced to operate more slowly when traveling at high velocities in space, slowing our measurements of time, not time itself.

    1. Suvi-Tuuli Allan KFP Gum Under the Table
      Suvi-Tuuli Allan KFP Gum Under the Table
      Muaj më parë

      Could you explain how you came to this conclusion?

  40. Vladek16
    Vladek16
    Muaj më parë

    light bending, that would be a nive avatar spinoff

  41. Richard Jones
    Richard Jones
    Muaj më parë

    Remember when the only thing fibre-optics seemed to be good for was those 'hairy' 70's lamps?

  42. A K
    A K
    Muaj më parë

    Why hasn't he got the Nobel prize yet?

  43. Lloyd Arsen Balbas
    Lloyd Arsen Balbas
    Muaj më parë

    It's an injustice that people who paved the way for us to experience the amenities we have now are obscured and unappreciated. They deserved better recognition as we owe a lot of what we have now to them.

  44. Felipe Carvalho
    Felipe Carvalho
    Muaj më parë

    "partially" supported the video?hmmm

  45. Rose Qassab
    Rose Qassab
    Muaj më parë

    Definitely a great video! Accrediting people that we may not have known about their great impact on life as we know it is definitely a noble thing! Well done SciShow!

  46. Joakim Hansen
    Joakim Hansen
    Muaj më parë

    This is the first time I hear of Kapany, thanks for putting a spotlight on the man.

  47. totalfreedom45
    totalfreedom45
    Muaj më parë

    *_1_* The Internet was born on 1 January 1983, when ARPANET adopted the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). *_2_* The Internet was invented by Vinton Cerf, Robert Khan, and Tim Berners-Lee (WWW). *_3_* Data transmission uses these channels: copper wires, optical fibers, wireless, storage media, computer buses, and codec equipment. 💕 ☮ 🌎 🌌

  48. Saurav Kumar
    Saurav Kumar
    Muaj më parë

    Proud to be an Indian🇮🇳

  49. Leigh Dupuy
    Leigh Dupuy
    Muaj më parë

    It was really jarring to hear Hank switch from discrete scientific terms to nonsense marketing speak when the sponsor section started.

  50. Mace Windu
    Mace Windu
    Muaj më parë

    My lightsaber is straight, not bendy.

  51. krellen d20
    krellen d20
    Muaj më parë

    I think Qualcomm needs to run "Snapdragon 8cx 5g" past marketing for a do-over.

  52. Portobello Mushroom
    Portobello Mushroom
    Muaj më parë

    Qualcomm?!? That's a new one 😂😂😂

  53. Ryan_Za
    Ryan_Za
    Muaj më parë

    I thought that the internet was made by 3 people not of these two recognized?

  54. Jesse Rayne
    Jesse Rayne
    Muaj më parë

    SHOW ME SOMETHING NEW.

  55. John Norris
    John Norris
    Muaj më parë

    Could you create a photon that has a finite life span? A beam of light that you could set a specific distance it could travel before it would no longer be? For example, a set of lights you could use to light up an area like a base at night but the light would have such a short life span that you would not be able to see the lit-up base if you were more than a few meters beyond its perimeter as the photons would not reach your eyes but everyone and everything within the base would be fully lit. Or perhaps create a photon or process where the photon changes its wavelength very rapidly from visible light to invisible light to where you would have white light at the base but a mile beyond it could not be seen, even the reflected light from the base.

  56. Sherloki TDK
    Sherloki TDK
    Muaj më parë

    Somehow Indian scientists never get their due recognition. 🤔

  57. Randall Gates
    Randall Gates
    Muaj më parë

    Fiber optics were actually found in the crashed Roswell UFO then back engineered when the technology was distributed to in the “know” companies. Read “the day after Roswell”

  58. Critical Rider
    Critical Rider
    Muaj më parë

    "Possible" because internet didn't exist before fiber optics?

    1. Critical Rider
      Critical Rider
      Muaj më parë

      @Aquarium Fuzz I know, I'm being sarcastic. The title is a shitty click bait, which is a disappointment for this channel.

    2. Aquarium Fuzz
      Aquarium Fuzz
      Muaj më parë

      Yes, internet existed before fibreoptics were marketed (fibre was still being developed)

  59. Kisaki Sakura
    Kisaki Sakura
    Muaj më parë

    Remember the episode compilation about famous scientists and how they said they don't pick Hank on purpose? Baseless excuses...

  60. donjasjit
    donjasjit
    Muaj më parë

    I had never heard of him and I am a Punjabi. Thanks for bringing his contribution into light. He deserves to be remembered.

  61. Theodore Manthovani
    Theodore Manthovani
    Muaj më parë

    Kapani was the Lightbender ahead of our time. I wonder where did the half nobel prize was awarded to, not him?

  62. MasterMAT
    MasterMAT
    Muaj më parë

    Sponsored by Qualcomm? That's new.

  63. s2t4i6n9e
    s2t4i6n9e
    Muaj më parë

    In the first animation, you show the light beam entering the fiber at an angle and being refracted upon entry. at the other end of the fiber, you show the light exiting the fiber with no refraction having taken place in spite of the exit angle not being perpendicular to the face of the fiber.

  64. oldcowbb
    oldcowbb
    Muaj më parë

    the light nation attacked

  65. Craig Stone
    Craig Stone
    Muaj më parë

    Studied fibre optics and photonics at Bath Uni, and I've not heard of may of these.

  66. M&J Studio.
    M&J Studio.
    Muaj më parë

    This promo is genius, they did their research to link tech lovers with science lovers.

  67. ziqi92
    ziqi92
    Muaj më parë

    This saved us all a crap ton of copper.

  68. Daniel Briggs
    Daniel Briggs
    Muaj më parë

    Al Gore?

  69. Choo choo
    Choo choo
    Muaj më parë

    Okay, but what did he even do? It's not even really specified in the video. He helped make a better endoscope? That's like claiming Alexander Bell made the internet possible because he found out how people could communicate long distances using electricity. It's no real wonder the dude in the vid isn't "recognized" for his contributions to the internet, since there basically were none. It's a real stretch to say that it is. The video says straight up that humans have known about this basic principle for thousands of years. He didn't really do much apart from implementing it in a novel way. It's neat, and probably deserved a video on it's own without piggybacking off of clickbaity titles, but it's some mental gymnastics to say he's what made the internet possible. Fiber optics is a technology that was inevitable. He's had as much to do with "making the internet possible" as any of the other humans that "discovered" the phenomena thousands of years ago.

  70. bunsout
    bunsout
    Muaj më parë

    Can y'all do a video on the new fossil found in china of the oviraptor with the clutch of eggs???

  71. Bin Zan
    Bin Zan
    Muaj më parë

    Beautiful, isn't it!

  72. Danfga2
    Danfga2
    Muaj më parë

    So.. Not really bending light. That's like saying a mirror will bend light, it's just reflection. Awesome discovery nontheless.

  73. vraj patel
    vraj patel
    Muaj më parë

    What was qualcomm thinking I mean good for hank and the channel

  74. alfred hernandez
    alfred hernandez
    Muaj më parë

    it's the chuck e cheese toy that changes colors with all the plastic fibers

  75. Trirell B
    Trirell B
    Muaj më parë

    Dear Hank, How fun and easy you have made learning on youtube the last 10+ years with all your content and contributions is really underrated too, Thank you!!!

  76. Brandon RH
    Brandon RH
    Muaj më parë

    what a legend

  77. DIO'sNotDead
    DIO'sNotDead
    Muaj më parë

    i almost always hear european and american scientists getting recognized for their work, but barely anyone from outside them and that's a big problem. i'm glad scishow is giving the spotlight to underrated scientists like him, whose work truly changed the world into what it is today.

    1. Dim Beam
      Dim Beam
      28 ditë më parë

      @Robert T also that'll have been a British school he went to.

    2. Robert T
      Robert T
      29 ditë më parë

      Eurocentrism is a thing, but as with most things, it's more complicated than just that.

  78. Jarrod Yuki
    Jarrod Yuki
    Muaj më parë

    india should become like china.

  79. Rae Peronneau
    Rae Peronneau
    Muaj më parë

    So why is this the first time I’m hearing about Mr. Kapany? Thank you!

  80. Matt Jasa
    Matt Jasa
    Muaj më parë

    When you say Glass Tube, do you mean a hollow tube of glass OR a very very thin glass rod? I always thought they used rods not tubes. I wanna make some of my own fiber optics but from the video I'm not sure to use tubes or rods.

  81. Energy Falcon
    Energy Falcon
    Muaj më parë

    Now let's take it from the ocean into my home

  82. Jons LG
    Jons LG
    Muaj më parë

  83. Daniel Dulu
    Daniel Dulu
    Muaj më parë

    Nortel in Canada was a leader for years until spies made them irrelevant.

  84. Jons LG
    Jons LG
    Muaj më parë

    Bend it like Narinder!

  85. BenGman
    BenGman
    Muaj më parë

    RIP Narinder We WILL talk about you more. Thank you.

  86. Egelloc Daddario
    Egelloc Daddario
    Muaj më parë

    I thought I read Blinded Light

  87. oktyrant
    oktyrant
    Muaj më parë

    Why diversity matters.

  88. Jen N’Juice
    Jen N’Juice
    Muaj më parë

    I’m so grateful that you folks make videos about the unsung scientists who made things possible. Thanks!

  89. Peter
    Peter
    Muaj më parë

    Optic fibers did not make the internet possible at all, it already existed. It just makes it faster.

  90. shubh
    shubh
    Muaj më parë

    Indians are overlooked in the scientific community a lot.

    1. Dash Roodle
      Dash Roodle
      Muaj më parë

      If they make some discoveries and you they won't be. Stop whining.

  91. shubh
    shubh
    Muaj më parë

    fun fact: the image is sharp because no transmission (refraction) takes place in TIR therefore the intensity is almost maintained as it is

  92. Wolf Cheese
    Wolf Cheese
    Muaj më parë

    Someone in the 18th century: Humans using light and 1s or 0s to communicate to another human on the other side of the planet? IMPOSSIBLE!

    1. Wolf Cheese
      Wolf Cheese
      Muaj më parë

      @herranton1979 That is interesting. Building a light signal would require you be on the shoulder of a giant, metaphorically. Without that, one would not know how to start.

    2. herranton1979
      herranton1979
      Muaj më parë

      @_Yashwant yadav I disagree and so does Narinder: The Last Lightbender. You're like the guy that told him light couldn't be bent, and then he proved you wrong. You would just need to build a series of light actuated repeaters. How? I dunno. I'm dumb. But I'm sure Narinder could figure it out on his lunch break.

    3. _Yashwant yadav
      _Yashwant yadav
      Muaj më parë

      @herranton1979 you know that other than laser they won't be able to achieve it ,

    4. herranton1979
      herranton1979
      Muaj më parë

      I actually doubt that very much. People have been using light to communicate over great distances for centuries. If you would've hypothesized a machine that can throw light down a tube in bursts to communicate, it probably wouldn't have seen too far fetched. In fact, you probably could build something using technology from 1790 that could send a light signal from Portugal to Berlin if you really put your mind to it (fresnel lenses and concave mirrors mounted on towers). (Why didn't they? Between the plagues and wars, and uprisings and religion, they didn't have time for something like that).

  93. Zeyev
    Zeyev
    Muaj më parë

    According to Wikipedia he died just a few months ago. It's sad how little we know about such important people.

    1. ਉਂਕਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ
      ਉਂਕਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ
      4 ditë më parë

      Alot of history is white washed when you start reading between the lines

    2. Pharmaceuticals Music
      Pharmaceuticals Music
      19 ditë më parë

      I think with this conversation it's easy to take a pessimistic or cynical angle but in reality people are just invested in different things and the number of people interested in the fundamentals of science is very small. That isn't necessarily a problem to me though, people are interested in and emotionally engaged by different things and that's fine, to me the real valuable conversation is how we get more people interested and not sitting and feeling sad about the fact that they aren't.

    3. Earth
      Earth
      19 ditë më parë

      true people only care if people like singers musicians and etc die but dont care too much about people that invented life changing inventions and actually helped humanity become more advanced

  94. Jai ShriRam
    Jai ShriRam
    Muaj më parë

    I'm an Indian & never heard of him :(

    1. ankit raj
      ankit raj
      Muaj më parë

      Becz he he also an Indian. #Racism

  95. Freddie Dunning-Kruger Jr.
    Freddie Dunning-Kruger Jr.
    Muaj më parë

    Qualcomm AD? There is a severe microchip shortage! 😂🤣🤣🤣😂😂

  96. Carrie
    Carrie
    Muaj më parë

    Ok but how do copper internet cables work?

  97. Jim Sackman Business Coaching
    Jim Sackman Business Coaching
    Muaj më parë

    While Fiber Optics is "bendable" it is generally not that bendable. There is a minimum bend radius for most fiber optic cable. However, there is some forms (albeit generally expensive and has some higher loss) which is insensitive to bending. The biggest use of this that I know is in Japan as part of their home installation kit for fiber to the home. There is serious research into long haul and medium haul fiber optics and cable. There is a lot less into short haul fiber. We found out some interesting things when deploying FiOS. For example, we found a paper from Lawrence Livermore Labs that said that single mode fiber cable had additional delay and loss under mechanical stress. This turned out to be true and we were able to build a very simple loss insertion tool by mechanically stressing fiber. This all came about during the first real world installations at Verizon employees. They were mostly doing aerial plant (you know off poles) and we were closely monitoring a particular customer. We noticed that the system adapted many more times than we predicted every days to what we thought were increases in cable length. We knew the temperature range and how long the cables were and could not make the formulas work. We sent a guy out to the customer and it turned out that the final cable was strung through a tree and what we were watching was the wind moving the branches and stressing the cable. It all worked fine, but it was so interesting to find the zillion things that happen when you install 1000s of homes a day of new technology.

  98. TheFourthWinchester
    TheFourthWinchester
    Muaj më parë

    Thank you Narender for improving the quality of life. Without you, we wouldn't be in the Information Age. Nobel is a joke for not recognizing you.

  99. pardha bandaru
    pardha bandaru
    Muaj më parë

    "But Kapany was never recognized as widely" just like every Indian Scientist?!

  100. UberKrassMann
    UberKrassMann
    Muaj më parë

    "The Scientist Who Made the Internet Possible." ok seriously sci-show. STOP WITH THE FRACKING CLICKBAIT! fiber optics are far from "what makes the internet possible". at best they make it faster, which even that is debatable with the existence of satellites, but certainly NOT, POSSIBLE!! so please. you're suppose to be an educational program. you need to be bigger then spreading miss information with clickbait titles.